Your scalp consists of three layers: Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous.
The deepest layer of the epidermis is constantly dividing producing new cells that move upwards. Old cells (portrayed as flakes) are constantly shedding and being replaced by younger and newer cells. Dandruff is the overproduction of those cells and/or their retention in the outermost layer of skin for prolonged periods.
Understand why and how this happens HERE.

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